As discussed in this blog post, GOES-13 — launched in May 2006, with a Post Launch Test in December 2006 — served as GOES-East from 2010 to 2017. Image dissemination was terminated on 08 January 2018; the satellite will then begin drifting on 10 January to its storage location at 60º West longitude. Shown below are the final Full Disk Visible (0.63 µm), Water Vapor (6.5 µm) and Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images broadcast by GOES-13 at 1445 UTC.
On the following day (07 January), 250-meter resolution Terra MODIS true-color and false-color RGB images from the MODIS Today site (below) showed that a larger V-shaped ice floe was located just southeast of the Peninsula, with its vertex pointed toward the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel (HRBT). Snow and ice also appear as shades of cyan in the MODIS false-color image.07 January also happened to be the last full day of imagery to be broadcast by the GOES-13 satellite — a comparison of 1-minute Mesoscale Sector GOES-16 (GOES-East) Visible (0.64 µm) and 15-30 minute interval GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) images (below) showed that the V-shaped ice floe continued to drift southwestward toward the HRBT. However, it was difficult to tell whether the ice feature made it over and past the tunnel; even with the improved GOES-16 Visible spatial resolution (0.5 km at satellite sub-point, compared to 1.0 km for GOES-13) and the 1-minute rapid image scans, the ice floe became harder to track during the afternoon hours before high clouds began to overspread the region. However, a close examination of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color and false-color images at 1826 UTC (below) indicated that some of the ice had indeed moved westward past Fort Monroe (on the far southeastern tip of the Peninsula) and over/past the HRBT. On the topic of cold temperatures in southeastern Virginia, a new daily record low of -3 ºF was set at Richmond on the morning of 07 January, and at Norfolk new daily record low and record low maximum temperatures were set (10 ºF and 23 ºF, respectively).
The passenger cruise ship Norwegian Breakaway was en route to New York City from the Bahamas when it experienced very strong winds and rough seas early in the morning on 04 January (media story) — it appears as though the ship may have been in the general vicinity of this sting jet feature (ship data), where intense winds were descending to the surface from higher levels of the atmosphere:
Interpolating https://t.co/nNODxB61uj suggests in that vicinity/time. This is NAM nest 06z initialization, near time of https://t.co/NG2ytIaztM. In any event, sailed directly into core of what models correctly predicted to be one of most extreme #bombogenesis rates on record. pic.twitter.com/rcQK7IP2Qv
— Stu Ostro (@StuOstro) January 7, 2018
A comparison of GOES-16 (GOES-East) and GOES-13 Water Vapor images (below) demonstrated how the GOES-16 improvement in spatial resolution (2 km at satellite sub-point, vs 4 km for GOES-13) and more frequent imaging (routinely every 5 minutes over the CONUS domain, vs 15-30 minutes for GOES-13) helped to better follow the evolution of the sting jet feature. The 2 known locations of the Norwegian Breakaway around the time period of the image animation are plotted in red.The sting jet signature was also apparent on GOES-16 Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images (below). In addition, the sting jet signature was evident in a Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image at 0614 UTC or 1:14 AM Eastern time (below). Through the clouds, the faint glow of city lights in far eastern North Carolina could be seen along the left edge of the image. The cloud features shown using the “visible image at night” VIIRS Day/Night Band were brightly-illuminated by the Moon, which was in the Waning Gibbous phase at 92% of Full. A VIIRS instrument is aboard the JPSS series of satellites, such as the recently-launched NOAA-20. Another view of the sting jet signature was seen in a 250-meter resolution Aqua MODIS Infrared Window (11.0 µm) image at 0725 UTC (below).
Due to the improved spatial resolution of the GOES-16 3.9 µm Shortwave Infrared band (2 km at satellite sub-point, vs 4 km for GOES-15 and GOES-13) and the more frequent image scans (routinely every 5 minutes over CONUS for GOES-16), an unambiguous thermal anomaly or fire “hot spot” was first evident on GOES-16 at 1707 UTC, just southeast of Lewistown (station identifier KLWT). The GOES-16 fire thermal signature was also hotter (black pixels) compared to either GOES-15 or GOES-13.
The GOES-13 Satellite, operational as GOES-East from April 2010 through December 2017 (with a notable interruption) will be turned off sometime after 1500 UTC on Wednesday 3 January 2018. (Update: due to an impending East Coast winter storm, GOES-13 deactivation was postponed to 8 January)
The visible Full Disk image above, from 1745 UTC on 2 January 2018, is one of the last fully illuminated visible image the satellite will process. (The first processed full disk visible image, from 22 June 2006, can be viewed here.)
On 28 December 2017, GOES-13 imagery included a view of the Moon, as shown here (and zoomed in here). Future GOES-East imagery from GOES-16 will not include images of the Moon. GOES-16 will scan the moon when it is near the horizon (and there are occasional GOES-16 mesoscale sectors placed over the Moon for calibration purposes). However, GOES-16 imagery is remapped to Earth points before being broadcast to the public. The Moon (happily) is not on the Earth and its points will not be remapped.
Thank you GOES-13 for your long years of service. A full-resolution version of the image above is available here.
A closer view of GOES-13 visible images (below) showed the band of snow cover across Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. Much of the the snow melted quickly, due to warm ground temperatures and a full day of sun.A more detailed view of the snow cover was provided by 250-meter resolution Terra and Aqua MODIS true-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images from the SSEC MODIS Direct Broadcast site (below). Note that snow cover was evident all the way to the Gulf Coast at Atchafalaya Bay, Louisiana early in the day. It is interesting to note that with the aid of reflected moonlight — the Moon was in the Waning Gibbous phase, at 59% of Full — the Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) was able to detect the area of deeper snow cover across southeastern Louisiana and southern Mississippi at 0741 UTC or 1:41 AM local time; this snow cover was then seen during the following morning on GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) imagery at 1440 UTC or 8:40 AM local time (below). A VIIRS instrument is part of the payload on the recently-launched JPSS-1/NOAA-20 satellite.
A toggle between Terra MODIS true-color and false-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images from RealEarth (below) showed the southwestern portion of this band of snow cover (which appeared as darker shades of cyan in the false-color image).Farther to the north, another southwest-to-northeast oriented band of snow cover was seen on Terra MODIS true-color and false-color RGB images (below), stretching from San Antonio to Austin to College Station. The highest snowfall total there was 5.0 inches (NWS Austin/San Antonio summary),
— Brenden Moses (@Cyclonebiskit) October 14, 2017
A DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image (below) also revealed a circular eye structure.
One factor that might have aided this increase of intensity was the recent passage of Ophelia through an environment of higher Maximum Potential Intensity (reference), where maximum wind speed values of 100 knots resided (below).
1-minute interval Mesoscale Sector GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed the large central dense overcast (which exhibited cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of -80ºC and colder, violet colors, and at times -90ºC and colder, yellow enhancement) and subsequent smaller convective bursts associated with Hurricane Nate on 07 October 2017.
After having moved north-northwestward at speeds up to 24 mph — quite possibly the fastest-moving tropical cyclone on record in the Gulf of Mexico — Nate made its initial landfall (as a Category 1 storm) in Louisiana near the mouth of the Mississippi River at 00 UTC on 08 October 2017 [note: Nate’s second landfall was around 0530 UTC near Biloxi, Mississippi]. A few reports of damaging winds and tornadoes were noted ahead of and during Nate’s landfall; a listing of other wind gusts can be seen here.
Earlier in the day, DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) imagery was hinting at the development of a closed eye structure beneath the central dense overcast seen on GOES-13 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) imagery (below).Even though Nate passed over very warm water in the Gulf of Mexico (below), the fast forward motion of the storm limited its ability to take advantage of those warm waters and rapidly intensify.
* GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing *
The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) for September 2017 set a new record for any month over the North Atlantic basin:
Since it was released on a Sunday morning, many missed the monthly summary from NHC confirming Sept 2017 as the most active month on record pic.twitter.com/7T3svWUmQ4
— Eric Blake ? (@EricBlake12) October 2, 2017
One noteworthy statistic of Hurricane Irma: during its 3 days and 3 hours as a Category 5 hurricane (above), the storm had an intensity of 160 knots or 185 mph for 37 consecutive hours — which set a new world record. GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images during this period of 185 mph intensity (below) showed a well-defined eye, with cold cloud-top infrared infrared brightness temperatures (occasionally -80ºC or colder, denoted by the violet color enhancement) within the adjacent eyewall region.
One noteworthy aspect of Hurricane Maria was its intensification to a Category 5 storm on 18 September (above) — just before making landfall on the island of Dominica — and less than 48 hours before making landfall over southeastern Puerto Rico as a high-end Category 4 storm. GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images at 1-minute (pre-landfall) and 30-second (post-landfall) time intervals (below) showed that while the eye of Maria quickly eroded as the tropical cyclone moved northwestward across the island and interacted with its rugged terrain, deep convection of the eyewall region persisted over much of Puerto Rico during the transect. Note that the last hourly surface observations from Roosevelt Roads (TJNR) and San Juan (TJSJ) were from 04 UTC and 09 UTC, respectively — after which times power and communications to weather equipment (such as the San Juan radar) were lost.
Although not as intense as Irma or Maria, the long duration of Hurricane Jose allowed it to achieve an ACE value nearly as high.