Category Archives: GOES-13

Final Full Disk images from GOES-13

As discussed in this blog post, GOES-13 — launched in May 2006, with a Post Launch Test in December 2006 — served as GOES-East from 2010 to 2017. Image dissemination was terminated on 08 January 2018; the satellite will then begin drifting on 10 January to its storage location at 60º  West longitude. Shown below are the final Full Disk Visible (0.63 µm), Water Vapor (6.5 µm) and Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images broadcast by GOES-13 at 1445 UTC.

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) image [click to enlarge]

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) image [click to enlarge]

GOES-13 Water Vapor (6.5 µm) image [click to enlarge]

GOES-13 Water Vapor (6.5 µm) image [click to enlarge]

GOES-13 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) image [click to enlarge]

GOES-13 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) image [click to enlarge]

Ice floes in Chesapeake Bay

Landsat-8 false-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 false-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

In the wake of the explosive cyclogenesis off the East Coast of the US on 04 January 2018, very cold air began to spread across much of the eastern half of the Lower 48 states. Focusing on the Hampton Roads area of southeastern Virginia, satellite imagery began to show the formation of ice in the rivers and bays. On 06 January, a 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 false-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image viewed using RealEarth (above) revealed some of this ice — in particular, long narrow ice floes (snow and ice appear as shades of cyan) that likely emerged from the Back River (northeast of Hampton) and were drifting northward and southward just off the coast of the Virginia Peninsula.

On the following day (07 January), 250-meter resolution Terra MODIS true-color and false-color RGB images from the MODIS Today site (below) showed that a larger V-shaped ice floe was located just southeast of the Peninsula, with its vertex pointed toward the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel (HRBT). Snow and ice also appear as shades of cyan in the MODIS false-color image.

Terra MODIS true-color and false-color RGB images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS true-color and false-color RGB images [click to enlarge]

07 January also happened to be the last full day of imagery to be broadcast by the GOES-13 satellite — a comparison of 1-minute Mesoscale Sector GOES-16 (GOES-East) Visible (0.64 µm) and 15-30 minute interval GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) images (below) showed that the V-shaped ice floe continued to drift southwestward toward the HRBT. However, it was difficult to tell whether the ice feature made it over and past the tunnel; even with the improved GOES-16 Visible spatial resolution (0.5 km at satellite sub-point, compared to 1.0 km for GOES-13) and the 1-minute rapid image scans, the ice floe became harder to track during the afternoon hours before high clouds began to overspread the region.

"GOES-16

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm, right) images, with hourly surface air temperatures (ºF) plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

However, a close examination of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color and false-color images at 1826 UTC (below) indicated that some of the ice had indeed moved westward past Fort Monroe (on the far southeastern tip of the Peninsula) and over/past the HRBT.

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color and false-color RGB images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color and false-color RGB images [click to enlarge]

On the topic of cold temperatures in southeastern Virginia, a new daily record low of -3 ºF was set at Richmond on the morning of 07 January, and at Norfolk new daily record low and record low maximum temperatures were set (10 ºF and 23 ºF, respectively).

Satellite signatures of a “sting jet”

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm) images, with hourly plots of buoy and ship reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm) images, with hourly plots of buoy and ship reports [click to play MP4 animation]

Satellite signatures of a phenomenon known as a “sting jet” have been shown previously on this blog here, here and here. GOES-16 (GOES-East) Lower-level (7.3 µm) Water Vapor images (above) revealed another classic example of the “scorpion tail” signature of a sting jet associated with the rapidly-intensifying storm off the coast of North Carolina on 04 January 2018.

The passenger cruise ship Norwegian Breakaway was en route to New York City from the Bahamas when it experienced very strong winds and rough seas early in the morning on 04 January (media story) — it appears as though the ship may have been in the general vicinity of this sting jet feature (ship data), where intense winds were descending to the surface from higher levels of the atmosphere:

A comparison of GOES-16 (GOES-East) and GOES-13 Water Vapor images (below) demonstrated how the GOES-16 improvement in spatial resolution  (2 km at satellite sub-point, vs 4 km for GOES-13) and more frequent imaging (routinely every 5 minutes over the CONUS domain, vs 15-30 minutes for GOES-13) helped to better follow the evolution of the sting jet feature. The 2 known locations of the Norwegian Breakaway around the time period of the image animation are plotted in red.

"Water

Water Vapor images from GOES-16 (6.9 µm, left) and GOES-13 (6.5 µm, right), with the 2 known locations of the Norwegian Breakaway plotted in red [click to play MP4 animation]

The sting jet signature was also apparent on GOES-16 Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images (below).

GOES-16 Mid-level (6.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of buoy and ship reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Mid-level (6.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of buoy and ship reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm) images, with hourly plots of buoy and ship reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm) images, with hourly plots of buoy and ship reports [click to play MP4 animation]

In addition, the sting jet signature was evident in a Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image at 0614 UTC or 1:14 AM Eastern time (below). Through the clouds, the faint glow of city lights in far eastern North Carolina could be seen along the left edge of the image. The cloud features shown using the “visible image at night” VIIRS Day/Night Band were brightly-illuminated by the Moon, which was in the Waning Gibbous phase at 92% of Full. A VIIRS instrument is aboard the JPSS series of satellites, such as the recently-launched NOAA-20.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image [click to enlarge]

Another view of the sting jet signature was seen in a 250-meter resolution Aqua MODIS Infrared Window (11.0 µm) image at 0725 UTC (below).

Aqua MODIS Infrared Window (11.0 µm) image [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS Infrared Window (11.0 µm) image [click to enlarge]

A prescribed burn in Montana, as viewed from GOES-15, GOES-16 and GOES-13

GOES-15 (left), GOES-16 (center) and GOES-13 (right) Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with plots of hourly surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-15 (left), GOES-16 (center) and GOES-13 (right) Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with plots of hourly surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

A prescribed burn the SureEnough fire — in central Montana was viewed by GOES-15 (GOES-West), GOES-16 (GOES-East) and GOES-13 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) imagery on 02 January 2018. The images are shown in the native projection for each of the 3 satellites.

Due to the improved spatial resolution of the GOES-16 3.9 µm Shortwave Infrared band (2 km at satellite sub-point, vs 4 km for GOES-15 and GOES-13) and the more frequent image scans (routinely every 5 minutes over CONUS for GOES-16), an unambiguous thermal anomaly or fire “hot spot” was first evident on GOES-16 at 1707 UTC, just southeast of Lewistown (station identifier KLWT). The GOES-16 fire thermal signature was also hotter (black pixels) compared to either GOES-15 or GOES-13.

GOES-13 will cease transmission on 3 January 2018 [Update: 8 January]

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) Image, 1745 UTC on 2 January 2018 (Click to enlarge)

The GOES-13 Satellite, operational as GOES-East from April 2010 through December 2017 (with a notable interruption) will be turned off sometime after 1500 UTC on Wednesday 3 January 2018. (Update: due to an impending East Coast winter storm, GOES-13 deactivation was postponed to 8 January)

The visible Full Disk image above, from 1745 UTC on 2 January 2018, is one of the last fully illuminated visible image the satellite will process.  (The first processed full disk visible image, from 22 June 2006, can be viewed here.)

On 28 December 2017, GOES-13 imagery included a view of the Moon, as shown here (and zoomed in here).  Future GOES-East imagery from GOES-16 will not include images of the Moon.  GOES-16 will scan the moon when it is near the horizon (and there are occasional GOES-16 mesoscale sectors placed over the Moon for calibration purposes).  However, GOES-16 imagery is remapped to Earth points before being broadcast to the public.  The Moon (happily) is not on the Earth and its points will not be remapped.

Thank you GOES-13 for your long years of service.  A full-resolution version of the image above is available here.

Snowfall across the Deep South

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-13 (GOES-East) Visible (0.63 µm) images (above) showed a broad swath of snow cover from Louisiana to Virginia on 09 December 2017. Some notable storm total accumulations included 6.5 inches at Kentwood, Louisiana, 7.0 inches at Bay Springs, Mississippi, 12.0 inches at Jacksonville, Alabama, 2.0 inches at Century, Florida, 18.0 inches at Mountain City, Georgia, 7.0 inches near Roan Mountain, Tennessee, and 25 inches at Mt. Mitchell State Park, North Carolina. Daily record snowfall accumulations included a Trace at New Orleans, Louisiana, 5.1 inches at Jackson, Mississippi and 1 inch at Mobile, Alabama.

A closer view of GOES-13 visible images (below) showed the band of snow cover across Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. Much of the the snow melted quickly, due to warm ground temperatures and a full day of sun.

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) images, with station identifiers plotted in yellow [click to play animation]

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) images, with hourly surface reports plotted in yellow [click to play animation]

A more detailed view of the snow cover was provided by 250-meter resolution Terra and Aqua MODIS true-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images from the SSEC MODIS Direct Broadcast site (below). Note that snow cover was evident all the way to the Gulf Coast at Atchafalaya Bay, Louisiana early in the day.

Terra and Aqua MODIS true-color RGB images of the central Gulf Coast region [click to enlarge]

Terra and Aqua MODIS true-color images of the central Gulf Coast region [click to enlarge]

Terra and Aqua MODIS true-color RGB images, centered over Atchafalaya Bay, Louisiana [click to enlarge]

Terra and Aqua MODIS true-color RGB images, centered over Atchafalaya Bay, Louisiana [click to enlarge]

Terra and Aqua MODIS true-color images, centered over New Orleans, Louisiana [click to enlarge]

Terra and Aqua MODIS true-color images, centered over New Orleans, Louisiana [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS true-color image, centered over Atlanta, Georgia [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS true-color image, centered over Atlanta, Georgia [click to enlarge]

It is interesting to note that with the aid of reflected moonlight — the Moon was in the Waning Gibbous phase, at 59% of Full — the Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) was able to detect the area of deeper snow cover across southeastern Louisiana and southern Mississippi at 0741 UTC or 1:41 AM local time; this snow cover was then seen during the following morning on GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) imagery at 1440 UTC or 8:40 AM local time (below). A VIIRS instrument is part of the payload on the recently-launched JPSS-1/NOAA-20 satellite.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Snowfall in southern Texas

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm, left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation]

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm, left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation]

The combination of lift from an upper-level trough and cold air behind the passage of a surface cold front  set the stage for accumulating snow across far southern Texas on 08 December 2017. As the clouds cleared, GOES-13 (GOES-East) Visible (0.63 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) revealed a narrow swath of snow cover running northeastward from the Rio Grande River toward Corpus Christi — the highest snowfall total associated with this feature was 7.0 inches near Corpus Christi. Daily snowfall records included 0.3 inch at Brownsville and 1.0 inch at Corpus Christi.

A toggle between Terra MODIS true-color and false-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images from RealEarth (below) showed the southwestern portion of this band of snow cover (which appeared as darker shades of cyan in the false-color image).

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color and false-color RGB images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color and false-color RGB images [click to enlarge]

Farther to the north, another southwest-to-northeast oriented band of snow cover was seen on Terra MODIS true-color and false-color RGB images (below), stretching from San Antonio to Austin to College Station. The highest snowfall total there was 5.0 inches (NWS Austin/San Antonio summary),

Terra MODIS true-color and false-color images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS true-color and false-color images [click to enlarge]

Hurricane Ophelia

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.7 µm, right) images, with hourly surface reports (in metric units) plotted in yellow [click to animate]

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.7 µm, right) images, with hourly surface reports (in metric units) plotted in yellow [click to animate]

Hurricane Ophelia — the record-tying 10th consecutive Atlantic basin hurricane of the 2017 season — reached a satellite-estimated Category 3 intensity at 15 UTC on 14 October 2017. GOES-13 (GOES-East) Visible (0.63 µm) and Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images (above) showed a well-defined circular eye as the storm moved well south of the Azores. The tweet below underscores the unusual nature of the intensity and location of Ophelia (which also occurred over unusually-cold waters).

A DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image (below) also revealed a circular eye structure.

DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

One factor that might have aided this increase of intensity was the recent passage of Ophelia through an environment of higher Maximum Potential Intensity (reference), where maximum wind speed values of 100 knots resided (below).

Maximum Potential Instability wind speed plot from 13 October, with the track of Ophelia as of 18 UTC on 14 October [click to enlarge]

Maximum Potential Instability wind speed plot from 13 October, with the track of Ophelia as of 18 UTC on 14 October [click to enlarge]

Hurricane Nate makes landfall in Louisiana and Mississippi

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm. left) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images, with hourly surface reports plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm. left) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images, with hourly surface reports plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

* GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing *

1-minute interval Mesoscale Sector GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed the large central dense overcast (which exhibited cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of -80ºC and colder, violet colors, and at times -90ºC and colder, yellow enhancement) and subsequent smaller convective bursts associated with Hurricane Nate on 07 October 2017.

After having moved north-northwestward at speeds up to 24 mph — quite possibly the fastest-moving tropical cyclone on record in the Gulf of Mexico — Nate made its initial landfall (as a Category 1 storm) in Louisiana near the mouth of the Mississippi River at 00 UTC on 08 October 2017 [note: Nate’s second landfall was around 0530 UTC near Biloxi, Mississippi]. A few reports of damaging winds and tornadoes were noted ahead of and during Nate’s landfall; a listing of other wind gusts can be seen here.

Earlier in the day, DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) imagery was hinting at the development of a closed eye structure beneath the central dense overcast seen on GOES-13 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) imagery (below).

GOES-13 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) and DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) images around 1215 UTC [click to enlarge]

GOES-13 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) and DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) images around 1215 UTC [click to enlarge]

Even though Nate passed over very warm water in the Gulf of Mexico (below), the fast forward motion of the storm limited its ability to take advantage of those warm waters and rapidly intensify.

Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Heat Content analyses from 06 October, with an overlay of the 07 October path of Hurricane Nate ending at 12 UTC [click to enlarge]

Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Heat Content analyses from 06 October, with an overlay of the 07 October path of Hurricane Nate ending at 12 UTC [click to enlarge]

September 2017: a record-setting month in terms of Atlantic tropical cyclone ACE

* GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing *

The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) for September 2017 set a new record for any month over the North Atlantic basin:

Two significant contributors to this record ACE value were long-lived and very intense Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Maria.

Hurricane Irma – Ace: 66.6 – Duration: 13 Days

Montage of Hurricane Irma GOES-13 infrared images, with and without storm track/intensity [click to view]

Montage of Hurricane Irma GOES-13 infrared images, with and without storm track/intensity [click to view]

One noteworthy statistic of Hurricane Irma: during its 3 days and 3 hours as a Category 5 hurricane (above), the storm had an intensity of 160 knots or 185 mph for 37 consecutive hours — which set a new world record. GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images during this period of 185 mph intensity (below) showed a well-defined eye, with cold cloud-top infrared infrared brightness temperatures (occasionally -80ºC or colder, denoted by the violet color enhancement) within the adjacent eyewall region.

GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with hourly surface reports plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with hourly surface reports plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

Hurricane Maria – Ace: 44.6 – Duration: 14 Days

Montage of Hurricane Maria GOES-13 infrared images, with and without storm track/intensity [click to view]

Montage of Hurricane Maria GOES-13 infrared images, with and without storm track/intensity [click to view]

One noteworthy aspect of Hurricane Maria was its intensification to a Category 5 storm on 18 September (above) — just before making landfall on the island of Dominica — and less than 48 hours before making landfall over southeastern Puerto Rico as a high-end Category 4 storm. GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images at 1-minute (pre-landfall) and 30-second (post-landfall) time intervals (below) showed that while the eye of Maria quickly eroded as the tropical cyclone moved northwestward across the island and interacted with its rugged terrain, deep convection of the eyewall region persisted over much of Puerto Rico during the transect. Note that the last hourly surface observations from Roosevelt Roads (TJNR) and San Juan (TJSJ) were from 04 UTC and 09 UTC, respectively — after which times power and communications to weather equipment (such as the San Juan radar) were lost.

GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with hourly surface reports plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with hourly surface reports plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

Hurricane Jose – Ace: 42.2 – Duration: 17 Days

Montage of Hurricane Jose GOES-13 infrared images, with and without storm track/intensity [click to view]

Montage of Hurricane Jose GOES-13 infrared images, with and without storm track/intensity [click to view]

Although not as intense as Irma or Maria, the long duration of Hurricane Jose allowed it to achieve an ACE value nearly as high.

Individual storm montage images are available here on the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site.