Category Archives: GOES-16

Ice motion in the Great Lakes

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface wind barbs in cyan and wind gusts (kn0ts) in red (click to play Animated GIF)

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface wind barbs in cyan and wind gusts (knots) in red (click to play Animated GIF | MP4 also available)

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images showed ice motion in the western Great Lakes (above) and the central/eastern Great Lakes (below) on 14 February 2018. A flow of southwesterly winds at the surface was helping to move the lake ice toward the northeast. With increasing winds and a return of warmer air, the ice coverage of Lake Superior, Lake Michigan and Lake Huron had decreased slightly from their seasonal peaks a few days earlier — while the ice coverage for Lake Erie remained neared its seasonal peak. The total ice coverage for the Great Lakes as a whole was 57.9% on this day.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface wind barbs in cyan and wind gusts (knots) in red (click to play Animated GIF | MP4 also available)

Closer views of southern Lake Michigan and southern Lake Huron are shown below. In Lake Huron, small ice floes can be seen breaking away from the land fast ice.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface wind barbs in cyan and wind gusts (knots) in red (click to play Animated GIF | MP4 also available)

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface wind barbs in cyan and wind gusts (knots) in red (click to play Animated GIF | MP4 also available)

250-meter resolution Terra and Aqua MODIS True-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images from the MODIS Today site (below) provided more detailed views of the ice floes in southern Lake Michigan, southern Lake Huron and western Lake Erie. The Aqua satellite overpass was about 90 minutes later than that of Terra.

Terra and Aqua MODIS True-color RGB images of southern Lake Michigan [click to enlarge]

Terra and Aqua MODIS True-color RGB images of southern Lake Michigan [click to enlarge]

Terra and Aqua MODIS True-color RGB images of southern Lake Huron [click to enlarge]

Terra and Aqua MODIS True-color RGB images of southern Lake Huron [click to enlarge]

Terra and Aqua MODIS True-color RGB images of western Lake Erie [click to enlarge]

Terra and Aqua MODIS True-color RGB images of western Lake Erie [click to enlarge]

Large hail in Argentina

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images, with hourly surface reports (metric units) for Córdoba, Argentina [click to play animated GIF — MP4 also available]

GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed the development of severe thunderstorms which produced very large hail in Córdoba, Argentina on 08 February 2018. Distinct above-anvil plumes were evident on the Visible imagery, with pulses of overshooting tops exhibiting Infrared brightness temperatures in the -70 to -80ºC range (black to white enhancement). The hail reportedly began around 1930 UTC or 4:30 PM local time.

The above-anvil plumes could also be seen in GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images (below).

GOES-16 Near-Infrared

GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images, with hourly surface reports (metric units) for Córdoba, Argentina [click to play animated GIF — MP4 also available]

An Aqua MODIS True-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image viewed using RealEarth (below) showed the thunderstorm just west of Córdoba around 1850 UTC.

Aqua MODIS True-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS True-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

According to the Worldview site, the coldest Aqua MODIS cloud-top infrared brightness temperature at that time was -78ºC (below).

Aqua MODIS True-color and Infrared Window (11.0 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS True-color and Infrared Window (11.0 µm) images [click to enlarge]

A time series plot of surface observations at Córdoba (below) showed the warm temperatures and high dew points prior to the arrival of the thunderstorms; there were a number of hail reports between 19 UTC and 02 UTC (4 PM to 11 PM local time).

Time series of surface observations at Córdoba, Argentina [click to enlarge]

Time series of surface observations at Córdoba, Argentina [click to enlarge]

Cloud glaciation caused by perturbations

GOES-16 ABI Band 2 (0.64 µm) Visible Imagery, 1222 – 1712 UTC on 8 February 2018 (Click to animate)

The animation above shows visible imagery from GOES-16 (0.64 µm) over Pennsylvania on 8 February 2018.  Northwest flow over the ridges of the Appalachians is causing stable waves clouds that are parallel to the topography.  However, the animation shows point sources over Somerset and Cambria counties — in southwestern Pennsylvania — that are changing the character of the clouds and disrupting the linear cloud features.  The animation of the GOES-16 ABI 1.61 µm “Snow/Ice” channel, below, shows that the point sources are causing glaciation in the clouds.  Glaciated clouds contain ice, and ice strongly absorbs energy at 1.61 µm, so glaciated clouds appear dark.  The point sources, likely smokestacks, are perturbing the flow and likely introducing freezing nuclei into the supercooled clouds.  As a result, supercooled cloud liquid water droplets freeze.  The toggle between visible 0.64 µm and near-infrared 1.61 µm at 1312 UTC and at 1402 UTC suggests that different smokestacks are operating at different times of the day.  Note that later in the animations, mid-level clouds move in that obscure the view of the lowest clouds.

In addition to glaciated clouds, snow on the ground appears dark as well.  Snow on the ground in the Susquehanna River Valley, is very bright in the 0.64 µm imagery, and darker in the 1.61 µm.  The darkest regions over south central Pennsylvania and northern Maryland are likely regions where snowfall was followed by freezing rain:  the layer of ice on top of the snow will absorb 1.61 µm energy more readily than the snow itself.  This chart from the National Weather Service Eastern Region shows ice accumulations less than 0.10″ in that region.

GOES-16 ABI 1.61 µm Near-Infrared Imagery, 1222 – 1712 UTC on 8 February 2018 (Click to animate)

There is a GOES-16 Baseline Product that determines cloud-top phase.  The toggle below, showing imagery 1412 UTC on 8 February, suggests a change from supercooled (bright green) to mixed phase (dark green) to ice (red) in the region.  The 2-km native resolution of the Cloud Phase product (ATBD can be read here) vs. 1-km for 1.61 µm (and 0.5-km for 0.64 µm ) might account for some of the differences between what the 1.61 µm channel suggests over southwestern Pennsylvania and what the Cloud Phase product diagnoses.  (In addition, the GOES-16 Baseline Cloud Phase product has not yet reached Provisional Maturity Status).

GOES-16 Baseline Cloud Phase Product and GOES-16 Snow/Ice 1.61 µm Near-Infrared Imagery, 1412 UTC on 8 February 2018. (Click to enlarge)

So, glaciation of clouds can be induced as shown above by turbulence/freezing nuclei introduced by large smokestacks. The 1-minute animations below shows a region of supercooled clouds from 1515 UTC to 1715 UTC. Note the periodic appearance of hole-punch clouds. In this case, aircraft to/from Chicago O’Hare are likely penetrating the thin supercooled cloud layer, and the passage of the planes is causing glaciation. The clouds within the hole punch cloud are glaciated, and therefore dark in the 1.61 µm imagery: energy at that wavelength is absorbed, not reflected as happens in the visible wavelengths.

Ice in Lake Michigan is visible in the 0.64 µm, but not apparent in the 1.61 µm. Lake Ice and water both absorb 1.61 µm energy. Lake ice reflects 0.64 µm energy.

GOES-16 ABI Visible (0.64 µm) Imagery, 1515-1715 UTC on 8 February 2018 (Click to animate)

GOES-16 ABI Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) Imagery, 1515-1715 UTC on 8 February 2018 (Click to animate)

Satellite signatures of SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket launch

GOES-16 "Red" Visible <em>(0.64 µm, top),</em> Near-Infrared "Snow/Ice" <em>(1.61 µm, middle)</em> and Shortwave Infrared <em>(3.9 µm, bottom)</em> images, with plots of surface reports [click to play animation]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top), “Blue” Visible (0.47 µm, middle) and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm, bottom) images, with plots of surface reports [click to play animation]

GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm), “Blue” Visible (0.47 µm) and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 um) images (above) captured the signature of rocket plumes from the SpaceX Falcon Heavy launch at Kennedy Space Center, Florida on 06 February 2018. Bright areas of water droplet clouds were seen both at the surface near Launch Complex 39A and aloft just east of the Florida coast on the 20:47:28 UTC and 20:52:28 UTC images (the satellite was scanning those cloud features at 20:48:33 / 20:55:33 UTC or 3:48:33 / 3:55:33 PM Eastern Standard Time, respectively). The plume aloft looked like this from the surface. Due to significant lower-tropospheric wind shear, the near-surface launch pad plume drifted slowly toward the northwest, while the higher-altitude plume moved more quickly toward the northeast. Strong upper-tropospheric winds — 86 knots at 140 hPa or 14.4 km on the 12 UTC sounding — led to a 2 hour launch delay until speeds dropped to within safe flight criteria.

Looking farther to the east-northeast over the Atlantic Ocean, a pair of warm thermal anomalies — likely from the recently-separated twin Side Core booster engines (left) and the still-active single Center Core booster engine (right) — were seen on the corresponding 20:47:28 UTC GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Low-level (7.3 µm) Water Vapor images (below). A similar warm signature in Water Vapor imagery was observed following a previous SpaceX rocket launch in March 2017.

GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm, top), Mid-level (6.9 µm, middle) and Low-level (7.3 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm, top), Mid-level (6.9 µm, middle) and Low-level (7.3 µm, bottom) images [click to play animation]

While Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) imagery is useful for detection of thermal anomalies associated with wildfires or volcanic eruptions, in this case the warm signature (darker gray) was much less distinct compared to what was seen on the water vapor imagery (below).

GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm, top), Mid-level (6.9 µm, middle) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom) image [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm, top), Mid-level (6.9 µm, middle) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom) image [click to enlarge]

Sensing the surface with water vapor imagery

GOES-16 Low-level (7.3 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Low-level (7.3 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play animation]

As a cold, dry arctic air mass moved across the western Great Lakes on 06 February 2018, portions of the land-water boundaries of Lake Superior, Lake Michigan and Lake Huron were very distinct on GOES-16 (GOES-East) Low-level (7.3 µm) Water Vapor images (above). The motion of low-altitude lake effect clouds were also apparent in the imagery.

Plots of weighting functions for the three GOES-16 ABI Water Vapor bands (7.3 µm, 6.9 µm and 6.2 µm) are shown below, calculated using rawinsonde data from Green Bay, Wisconsin and Gaylord, Michigan. With cold air and low values of Total Precipitable Water at these 2 sites (1.53 mm / 0.06 in and 1.88 mm / 0.07 in, respectively), the height of their weighting functions was shifted to significantly lower altitudes compared to what would be observed in a standard atmosphere. This enabled the contrasting thermal signature of the land/water boundaries to easily reach the satellite sensors, passing through what little moisture existed within the atmospheric column. While the peak of the violet 7.3 µm weighting function plots descended to the 879 hPa pressure level at both sites (which was approximately 1.2 km above the surface), a significant contribution could be seen originating from the surface itself.

Weighting function plots for the three GOES-16 Water Vapor bands, calculated using rawinsonde data from Green Bay, Wisconsin [click to enlarge]

Weighting function plots for the three GOES-16 Water Vapor bands, calculated using rawinsonde data from Green Bay, Wisconsin [click to enlarge]

Weighting function plots for the three GOES-16 Water Vapor bands, calculated using rawinsonde data from Gaylord, Michigan [click to enlarge]

Weighting function plots for the three GOES-16 Water Vapor bands, calculated using rawinsonde data from Gaylord, Michigan [click to enlarge]

Note that the peaks of the blue 6.9 µm weighting function plots were also anomalously low, reaching the 802 and 754 hPa pressure levels — however, in contrast to the 7.3 µm plots there was very little contribution from the actual surface, and the presence of secondary peaks at higher altitudes led to some absorption and subsequent re-emission of upwelling radiation by that layer of colder moisture aloft. As a result, only the faint outline of Lake Superior and its lake effect clouds were occasionally seen on Mid-level 6.9 µm Water Vapor imagery (below).

GOES-16 Mid-level (6.9 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Mid-level (6.9 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play animation]

Lee-side cold frontal gravity wave

GOES-16 Low-level (7.3 µm, left), Mid-level (6.9 µm, middle) and Upper-level (6.2 µm, right) Water Vapor images, with hourly surface wind barbs plotted in cyan [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Low-level (7.3 µm, left), Mid-level (6.9 µm, middle) and Upper-level (6.2 µm, right) Water Vapor images, with hourly surface wind barbs plotted in cyan [click to play animation]

As a cold front moved rapidly southward across the Great Plains (surface analyses) on 05 February 2018, the signature of a deep-tropospheric lee-side cold frontal gravity wave (reference) could be seen on GOES-16 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images (above; also available as an MP4 animation). In addition, the initial gravity wave was soon followed by a secondary lee-side gravity wave, which could be seen moving southward over the northern Texas Panhandle by the end of the animation.

Plots of the weighting function (or “contribution function”) for each of the three GOES-16 Water Vapor bands (below) are calculated using 05 February/12 UTC rawinsonde data from Dodge City, Kansas — which was south of the cold front at that time. The peak pressure level for all three weighting function plots was in the 442-497 hPa range, giving some indication of the depth of these vertically-propagating gravity waves.

Weighting function plots for each of the three GOES-16 Water Vapor bands, calculated using 05 February/12 UTC rawinsonde data from Dodge City, Kansas [click to enlarge]

Weighting function plots for each of the three GOES-16 Water Vapor bands, calculated using 05 February/12 UTC rawinsonde data from Dodge City, Kansas [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 Water Vapor weighting functions using 06 February/00 UTC rawinsonde data from Amarillo, Texas — where the surface cold front had passed about 3 hours earlier — are shown below. Note that in the drier post-frontal air mass, the peak pressures for the 3 water vapor bands had increased, descending to the 477 to 684 hPa pressure levels. This comparison helps to underscore the dependence of water vapor weighting function height on the temperature and/or moisture profile of the atmosphere.

Weighting function plots for each of the three GOES-16 Water Vapor bands, calculated using 06 February/00 UTC rawinsonde data from Amarillo, Texas [click to enlarge]

Weighting function plots for each of the three GOES-16 Water Vapor bands, calculated using 06 February/00 UTC rawinsonde data from Amarillo, Texas [click to enlarge]

Ice in the western Great Lakes

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images, with plots of hourly surface reports [click to play animation]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with plots of hourly surface reports [click to play animation]

After several days of cold temperatures, ice coverage in the western half of Lake Superior began to increase — and GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (above) showed the motion of some of this lake ice (which was driven by a combination of surface winds and lake circulations) on 04 February 2018. That morning a number of locations in northern and northeastern Minnesota reported low temperatures in the -20 to -40 ºF range, with -43 ºF at Embarrass (the coldest location in the Lower 48 states).

With an overpass of the Landsat-8 satellite at 1646 UTC, a 30-meter resolution False-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image (below) provided a very detailed view of a portion of the Lake Superior ice. NOAA-GLERL analyzed the mean ice concentration of Lake Superior to be at 23.9% ; the Canadian Ice Service analyzed much of the new lake ice to have a concentration of 9/10ths to 10/10ths.

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Magnified sections of the Landsat-8 RGB image swath are shown below, moving from northeast to southwest.

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Moving to the south, a closer look at Green Bay in northeastern Wisconsin revealed a few small ice floes drifting from the north end of the bay into Lake Michigan (below).

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with plots of hourly surface reports [click to play animation]

Eruption of Volcán de Fuego in Guatemala

GOES-16 Near-Infrared

GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm, top), Near-Infrared “Cloud Particle Size” (2.24 µm, middle) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom) images [click to animate]

After a series of occasional weak emissions during the previous month, a small eruption of Volcán de Fuego began during the pre-dawn hours on 01 February 2018. The thermal anomaly or “hot spot” could be seen on GOES-16 (GOES-East) Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm), Near-Infrared “Cloud Particle Size” (2.24 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above). In terms of the two Near-Infrared bands, even though the 1.61 µm band has better spatial resolution (1 km at satellite sub-point), the 2-km resolution 2.24 µm band is spectrally located closer to the peak emitted radiance of very hot features such as active volcanoes or large fires.

Multi-spectral retrievals of Ash Cloud Height from the NOAA/CIMSS Volcanic Cloud Monitoring site (below) indicated that volcanic ash extended to altitudes in the 4-6 km range (yellow to green enhancement), with isolated 7 km pixels at 1315 UTC. The product also showed the effect of a burst of southwesterly winds just after 11 UTC, which began to transport some of the ash northeastward (as mentioned in the 1332 UTC advisory).

GOES-16 Ash Height product [click to animate]

GOES-16 Ash Height product [click to animate]

At 1624 UTC, a 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 False-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image viewed using RealEarth (below) showed the primary ash plume drifting to the west, with some lower-altitude ash spreading out northward and southward. A thermal anomaly was also evident at the summit of the volcano.

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Storm-force low in the central Atlantic Ocean

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

The compact circulation of an occluded surface low over the central Atlantic Ocean could be seen on GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images on 29 January 2018 (above); surface analyses indicated that the system was producing Storm Force (48-55 knot) winds.

This surface low was located beneath a larger upper-level low, as seen on GOES-16 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images (below). Very dry air (yellow to red enhancement) was evident just to the south and southwest of the storm.

GOES-16 Low-level (7.3 µm, left), Mid-level (6.9 µm, center) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Low-level (7.3 µm, left), Mid-level (6.9 µm, center) and Upper-level (6.2 µm, right) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Hourly images of a (preliminary, non-operational) GOES-16 Deep-Layer Wind Shear product (calculated using Low-level and Mid-upper level GOES-16 Derived Motion Winds) are shown below — they revealed that the surface low was protected within the favorable low-shear environment of the upper low circulation, with more unfavorable high values of shear immediately surrounding it.

GOES-16 Deep-layer Wind Shear products [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Deep-layer Wind Shear products [click to play animation]

Pyrocumulonimbus cloud in Argentina

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, top), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, center) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, top), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, center) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images [click to play animation]

A large cluster of fires burning in central Argentina became hot enough to generate a brief pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb) cloud on 29 January 2018; according to media reports, on that day there were winds of 55 km/hour (34 mph) and temperatures of 37 ºC (98.6 ºF) in the vicinity of these La Pampa province fires. GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above; also available as an MP4 animation) showed the smoke plumes, fire thermal anomalies or “hot spots” (red pixels) and the cold cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures, respectively. The minimum 10.3 µm temperature was -32.6 ºC at 1745 UTC. Note the relatively warm (darker gray) appearance on the 3.9 µm image — this is a characteristic signature of pyroCb clouds tops, driven by the aerosol-induced shift toward smaller ice particles (which act as more efficient reflectors of incoming solar radiation).

An Aqua MODIS True-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image viewed using RealEarth (below) showed the dense lower-tropospheric smoke drifting southward and southeastward from the fire source region, as well as the narrow upper-tropospheric anvil of the pyroCb cloud. Suomi NPP VIIRS fire detection locations are plotted as red dots on the final zoomed-in image. The actual time of the Aqua satellite pass over Argentina was 1812 UTC.

Aqua MODIS True-color RGB image, with Suomi NPP VIIRS fire detection locations [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS True-color RGB image, with Suomi NPP VIIRS fire detection locations [click to enlarge]

According to Worldview the coldest MODIS Infrared Window (11.0 µm) cloud-top  brightness temperature was -41.2 ºC, thus surpassing the -40 ºC threshold that is generally accepted to classify it as a pyroCb. This is believed to be the first confirmed pyroCb event in South America.

Approximately 120 km north-northeast of the pyroCb cloud, rawinsonde data from Santa Rosa, Argentina (below) indicated that the -41 ºC cloud-top temperature corresponded to altitudes in the 10.8 to 11.6 km range. The air was very dry at that level in the upper troposphere, contributing to the rapid dissipation of the pyroCb cloud material as seen in GOES-16 imagery.

Plots of rawinsonde data from Santa Rosa, Argentina [click to enlarge]

Plots of rawinsonde data from Santa Rosa, Argentina [click to enlarge]

48-hour HYSPLIT forward trajectories originating from the center of the pyroCb cloud at altitudes of 7, 9 and 11 km (below) suggested that a rapid transport of smoke over the adjacent offshore waters of the Atlantic Ocean was likely at those levels.

HYSPLIT forward trajectories originating at altitudes of 7, 9 and 11 km [click to enlarge]

HYSPLIT forward trajectories originating at altitudes of 7, 9 and 11 km [click to enlarge]

On 30 January, Suomi NPP OMPS Aerosol Index values (below; courtesy of Colin Seftor, SSAI at NASA Goddard) were as high as 4.3 over the South Atlantic (at 41.81º South latitude, 53.22º West longitude, 17:31:34 UTC) — consistent with the HYSPLIT transport originating at 7 km.

Suomi NPP OMPS Aerosol Index on 30 January [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP OMPS Aerosol Index on 30 January [click to enlarge]

Additional Suomi NPP VIIRS True-color and OMPS Aerosol Index images can be found on the OMPS Blog.

===== 01 February Update =====

This analysis of CALIPSO CALIOP data (courtesy of Mike Fromm, NRL) suggests that the upper-tropospheric smoke from this pyroCb event was transported as far as the eastern South Atlantic Ocean by 02 UTC on 01 February, having ascended to altitudes in the 9-10 km range.